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- Book of Enoch
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- The Sacrifice (The Watcher, #3) by Robin Woods
However, both are considered to be poor—the translation most of all—and is discussed in Hoffmann. The first critical edition, based on five manuscripts, appeared in as Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus, cum variis lectionibus , by August Dillmann. It was considered the standard edition of 1 Enoch until the work of Charles. His translation and commentary of the Ethiopic text already represented an important advancement, as it was based on ten additional manuscripts.
In R. Charles published a new critical edition of the Ethiopic text, using 23 Ethiopic manuscripts and all available sources at his time. The English translation of the reconstructed text appeared in , and the same year in his collection of The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. The publication, in the early s, of the first Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch among the Dead Sea Scrolls profoundly changed the study of the document, as it provided evidence of its antiquity and original text.
The official edition of all Enoch fragments appeared in , by Jozef Milik. The renewed interest in 1 Enoch spawned a number of other translations: in Hebrew A. In a new edition of the Ethiopic text was edited by Michael Knibb, with an English translation, while a new commentary appeared in by Matthew Black.
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In George W. Nickelsburg published the first volume of a comprehensive commentary on 1 Enoch in the Hermeneia series. This first section of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers , the angels who fathered the Nephilim cf. This section is said to have been composed in the 4th or 3rd century BCE according to Western scholars.
The introduction to the Book of Enoch tells us that Enoch is "a just man, whose eyes were opened by God so that he saw a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the sons of God showed to me, and from them I heard everything, and I knew what I saw, but [these things that I saw will] not [come to pass] for this generation, but for a generation that has yet to come. It also tells us about the luminaries rising and setting in the order and in their own time and never change: [ citation needed ]. How all things are ordained by God and take place in his own time.
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The sinners shall perish and the great and the good shall live on in light, joy and peace. And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon , and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it.
And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three hundred ells :  Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Michael , Uriel , Raphael , and Gabriel appeal to God to judge the inhabitants of the world and the fallen angels.
And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons.
And to Gabriel said the Lord: "Proceed against the biters and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle Some, [ citation needed ] including R.enter site
Book of Enoch
Charles, suggest that "biters" should read "bastards", but the name is so unusual that some [ citation needed ] believe that the implication that is made by the reading of "biters" is more or less correct. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated.
In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations. Chapters 37—71 of the Book of Enoch are referred to as the Book of Parables. The scholarly debate centers on these chapters. The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and of eschatology , concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also that of the evil kings of the earth.
It has been suggested that the Book of Parables, in its entirety, is a later addition. Pointing to similarities with the Sibylline Oracles and other earlier works, in , J. Milik dated the Book of Parables to the third century. He believed that the events in the parables were linked to historic events dating from to CE. According to this theory, these chapters were written in later Christian times by a Jewish Christian to enhance Christian beliefs with Enoch's authoritative name. Knibb would continue this line of reasoning in later works. Milik's date of as late as CE, however, has been rejected by most scholars.
David W. In , Robert Charles judged Chapter 71 to be a later addition. He would later change his opinion  : 1 and give an early date for the work between 94 and 64 BCE. Hirsch in the Jewish Encyclopedia states that Son of Man is found in the Book of Enoch, but never in the original material.
It occurs in the "Noachian interpolations" lx.
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He sits on God's throne xlv. Though Charles does not admit it, according to Emil G. Hirsch these passages betray Christian redaction and emendation. These passages seem to interrupt the flow of the narrative. Darrell D. Hannah suggests that these passages are not, in total, novel interpolations, but rather derived from an earlier Noah apocryphon. In addition to the theory of Noachian interpolations, which perhaps a majority of scholars support, most scholars currently believe that Chapters 70—71 are a later addition in part or in whole.
The Son of Man is identified with Enoch. The text implies that Enoch had previously been enthroned in heaven.
The parable also switches from third person singular to first person singular. Charlesworth rejects the theory that chapters 70—71 are later additions. He believes that no additions were made to the Book of Parables. Four fragmentary editions of the Astronomical Book were found at Qumran, 4Q This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament , as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven guided by Uriel , and it describes a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect.
The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem. The year was composed from days, divided in four equal seasons of ninety-one days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of thirty days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month.
The whole year was thus composed of exactly fifty-two weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week. Each year and each season started always on Wednesday , which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis , the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created. The Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt , is dated by most to Maccabean times about — BC. According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church it was written before the Flood.
The second dream vision in this section of the Book of Enoch is an allegorical account of the history of Israel, that uses animals to represent human beings and human beings to represent angels. One of several hypothetical reconstructions of the meanings in the dream is as follows based on the works of R. Charles and G. Schodde :. There are a great many links between the first book and this one, including the outline of the story and the imprisonment of the leaders and destruction of the Nephilim. The dream includes sections relating to the book of Watchers:.
And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep.
The fall of the evil ones. And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns. And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them.
The creation of the Nephilim et al.
Similar references exist in Jubilees — The book describes their release from the Ark along with three bulls — white, red, and black, which are Shem, Ham, and Japeth — in It also covers the death of Noah, described as the white bull, and the creation of many nations:. And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens It then describes the story of Moses and Aaron —15 , including the miracle of the river splitting in two for them to pass, and the creation of the stone commandments.
Eventually they arrived at a "pleasant and glorious land" where they were attacked by dogs Philistines , foxes Ammonites, Moabites , and wild boars Esau. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself unseemly.
And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that ram which had forsaken its glory. David replacing Saul as leader of Israel. It describes the creation of Solomon's Temple and also the house which may be the tabernacle : "And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: and a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him".
This interpretation is accepted by Dillmann p. It also describes the escape of Elijah the prophet; in 1 Kings —24, he is fed by "ravens", so if Kings uses a similar analogy, he may have been fed by the Seleucids. This part of the book can be taken to be the kingdom splitting into the northern and southern tribes, that is, Israel and Judah, eventually leading to Israel falling to the Assyrians in BC and Judah falling to the Babylonians a little over a century later BC.
There is also mention of 59 of 70 shepherds with their own seasons; there seems to be some debate on the meaning of this section, some suggesting that it is a reference to the 70 appointed times in , , and Another interpretation is the 70 weeks in Daniel However, the general interpretation is that these are simply angels. This section of the book and another section near the end describe the appointment by God of the 70 angels to protect the Israelites from enduring too much harm from the "beasts and birds".
The later section describes how the 70 angels are judged for causing more harm to Israel than he desired, found guilty, and "cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full of pillars of fire. Jews were allowed to return with the Temple vessels that the Babylonians had taken. Construction of the Second Temple began"; this represents the history of ancient Israel and Judah ; the temple was completed in BC. The first part of the next section of the book seems, according to Western scholars, to clearly describe the Maccabean revolt of BC against the Seleucids.
The following two quotes have been altered from their original form to make the hypothetical meanings of the animal names clear. And I saw in the vision how the Seleucids flew upon those faithful and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the Seleucids cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those faithful , and their eyes were opened.
And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those Macedonians and vultures and Seleucids and Ptolemies still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out.
And those Seleucids fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it. All the Macedonians and vultures and Seleucids and Ptolemies were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram. According to this theory, the first sentence most likely refers to the death of High Priest Onias III, whose murder is described in 1 Maccabees —35 died c.
The "great horn" clearly is not Mattathias , the initiator of the rebellion, as he dies a natural death, described in 1 Maccabees It is also not Alexander the Great, as the great horn is interpreted as a warrior who has fought the Macedonians, Seleucids, and Ptolemies. Judas Maccabeus BC— BC fought all three of these, with a large number of victories against the Seleucids over a great period of time; "they had no power over it". He is also described as "one great horn among six others on the head of a lamb", possibly referring to Maccabeus's five brothers and Mattathias.
If taken in context of the history from Maccabeus's time, Dillman Chrest Aethiop says the explanation of Verse 13 can be found in 1 Maccabees iii 7; vi. Maccabeus was eventually killed by the Seleucids at the Battle of Elasa, where he faced "twenty thousand foot soldiers and two thousand cavalry".
At one time, it was believed this passage might refer to John Hyrcanus ; the only reason for this was that the time between Alexander the Great and John Maccabeus was too short. However, it has been asserted that evidence shows that this section does indeed discuss Maccabeus. It then describes: "And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face.
It may also be Jonathan Apphus taking over command of the rebels to battle on after the death of Judas. John Hyrcanus Hyrcanus I , Hasmonean dynasty may also make an appearance; the passage "And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to His house" may describe John's reign as a time of great peace and prosperity.
Certain scholars also claim Alexander Jannaeus of Judaea is alluded to in this book. The end of the book describes the new Jerusalem, culminating in the birth of a Messiah :. And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the oxen.
Still another interpretation, which has just as much as credibility, is that the last chapters of this section simply refer to the infamous battle of Armageddon , where all of the nations of the world march against Israel; this interpretation is supported by the War Scroll, which describes what this epic battle may be like, according to the group s that existed at Qumran.
This section can be seen as being made up of five subsections,  mixed by the final redactor:. Some of the fallen angels that are given in 1 Enoch have other names, such as Rameel 'morning of God' , who becomes Azazel , and is also called Gadriel 'wall of God' in Chapter Another example is that Araqiel 'Earth of God' becomes Aretstikapha 'world of distortion' in Chapter Azaz , as in Azazel , means strength, so the name Azazel can refer to 'strength of God'. But the sense in which it is used most probably means 'impudent' showing strength towards , which results in 'arrogant to God'.
This is also a key point in modern thought that Azazel is Satan. Nathaniel Schmidt states "the names of the angels apparently refer to their condition and functions before the fall," and lists the likely meanings of the angels' names in the Book of Enoch, noting that "the great majority of them are Aramaic. The name suffix -el means 'God' see list of names referring to El , and is used in the names of high-ranking angels. The archangels ' names all include -el , such as Uriel 'flame of God' and Michael 'who is like God'. Another name is given as Gadreel , who is said to have tempted Eve ; Schmidt lists the name as meaning 'the helper of God.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The truth is I love teaching, and plan to continue indefinitely. I would love at some point to be able to cut down to a couple of periods and fill the rest of my time with writing. But I think that will be at least a few years off maybe more. Since publishing your first book, The Unintended , what else has been keeping you busy? Besides teaching, I am a wife and mother of two children ages three and six. Despite the demands of work and family, I have been able to release two more novels.
What would you consider your greatest success in writing thus far? Having three, and almost four, novels under my belt I think is a success. With each book I try to give myself some new challenges. One of my worst fears is to become stagnant as a writer. I set two specific challenges for Allure :.
There are a few over the last year that I immediately reread. Happy birthday, by the way! A cake for you, pictured above Are you doing anything special today? I may get to sneak out to lunch with a friend.
The Sacrifice (The Watcher, #3) by Robin Woods
No large celebration this year. Personal Site : www. Today I have a special guest and good friend, Robin Woods, sharing some great writing tips. And rather than type out paragraph after paragraph to convey this awesome resource, Robin has compiled an excellent chart, available for YOU to download for FREE!
I am so excited about this chart, because Robin is very organized. Therefore, I encouraged her to put her process to paper to help other writers. As a seasoned English teacher and author, this lady knows her stuff. I hope that you will find this resource extremely useful. Like this: Like Loading My Interview with author Robin Woods 1. I set two specific challenges for Allure : I set it in ; this required a lot more historical research. As with the other novels, it is written in first person, but I decided to use two perspectives.