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If your're a CPA, you'll have to keep plugging along with the CPE programs forever sigh , but they don't hack it in depth compared to this. Even the AICPA's Journal of Accountancy, though highly reccomended, and far more timely than any book, cannot cover the details adequately. Or you could take a CPA exam review course like Becker's every so oftern. That will set you back a fortune and hundreds of hours of your life. But you will be completely up to the minute on most everything.

How long you remember everything after finishing the review course is another question. A couple pieces of advice. Don't take the text into the office unless you see it or others like it on partners' bookshelves. Keep it out in the car for lunch, afterwork, fake restroom breaks,last minute reviews before you go in, or whatever. Also, never ever take it into a client's site. It may sometimes seem like a good idea, but your manager will probably slap you around for it.

Any text is only good for a few years, then spring for a new edition. If you get this text, give yourself some time working through it on the parts that are new to you or give you the most trouble or worry at work. Then consider buying the study guide. It's not a substitute for the book but it can speed things up for you a lot. If you think this is a lot of work or baloney, try weighing it against not getting a good raise or promotion.

Best wishes and good look. Intermediate Accounting Donald E. Kieso Jerry J. Weygandt Terry D. Auflage: Mood Board: Nataly Abramovitch. Verlagsfrisch New copy. A philosophical text with various headings, including translated : "Ideology and Mystification," "Initiation-Baptism," and "Action and Idea.

And there is the elevation to a new potential. But what does it give him? Meaning: he sees differently In short, he is the other The other is sacred object. Social life is unhappy consciousness. Problem: how to make a metamorphosis effective. How to be for myself the Other that I am in oneself.

Hegel and the tearing. Initiation: belongs to a new look. The sun: as a look. View and light: bound. Light is the view of the other. To live and to see is to participate in the vision of the other. Initiation: one wants to tear me away from a natural life that is dead and that I am in daily familiarity. That is to say, in the daily monotony of consciousness which is precisely what I want to get rid of, since it is the very symbol The ideology as framework for the individual.

But these essences are limited by the limits that liberties impose for example, on the possession of objects. So can we discover them only little by little and do we realize them only long after discovering them. Accompanied by an export certificate from the French Ministry of Culture. Neuware - 'Intriguing, compelling. Impossible to put down and irresistibly good' Liane Moriarty She's the victim. But is she so innocent Sophie McCarthy is known for her determination, ambition and brilliance at work.

She's tough, but only because she wants to get the best out of people. Aidan Ryan is strong, honourable, and a family man. He's tough too; the army requires it. When these two strangers are brought together in a devastating incident, Sophie's life is left in ruins.

Her family wants to see Aidan pay for what he did. Aidan's prepared to sacrifice everything - including his marriage and his child - to fix the mess he's made. But some things can't be fixed, and Sophie is not at all what she first appeared. The Missing Pieces of Sophie McCarthy is a gripping, impossible- to -put-down exploration of betrayal and revenge.

The characters were intriguing, the plot thrilling and the writing effortless. It has been a long time since a book engaged me like this. I will be telling everyone I know to read this book' Sally Hepworth, bestselling author of The Family Next Door 'What starts as an intricate, multi-narrator domestic drama slowly reveals its secrets to become something much darker indeed' Heat 'Utterly compelling with complex and real characters, and echoes of both Liane Moriarty and Charity Norman. A completely gripping and emotional page-turner' Lucy Clarke, bestselling author of You Let Me In 'Very well written and suspenseful with characters to believe in; it was deeply psychological and I thoroughly enjoyed it' Lisa Ballantyne, bestselling author of Little Liar pp.

Original green metallic cloth, title to spine in cream, buff endpapers. Gift inscription to front pastedown. Boards gently bowed, spine ends, head of front board and tips bumped, contents lightly toned. A very good copy. First UK edition, first impression, inscribed by the author on the front free endpaper, "For Wally, with more affection than he will care to believe. John Steinbeck". Though gratified by the reviews, Steinbeck did not attend any of the rehearsals or performances of the New York run, remaining at his home in California, much to Kaufman's disappointment: "'I'd like to see the play,' he wrote to Elizabth Otis, his agent, 'but I wouldn't go six thousand miles to see the opening of the second coming of Christ'".

He did however attend the rehearsals when the play moved to California, noting his disappointment at one point "Wally [Ford] is an actor. He wants to yell and posture. No Kaufman to hold them down so they're yelling their heads off" Benson. The Long Valley was first published in in the US, and is extremely uncommon inscribed, with just one inscribed copy of the first edition located at auction.

Neuware - 'Probably the most influential popular science book ever written' - BBC Radio 4 'Nudge has changed the world. You may not realise it, but as a result of its findings you're likely to live longer, retire richer and maybe even save other people's lives' - The Times From Cass R. Sunstein and Richard H. Thaler, winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, Nudge is the book that has changed the way we think about decision-making Nudge is about choices - how we make them and how we can make better ones.

Every day we make decisions: about the things that we buy or the meals we eat; about the investments we make or our children's health and education; even the causes that we champion or the planet itself. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. We are all susceptible to biases that can lead us to make bad decisions. And, as Thaler and Sunstein show, no choice is ever presented to us in a neutral way. By knowing how people think, we can make it easier for them to choose what is best for them, their families and society. Using dozens of eye-opening examples and original research, the authors demonstrate how to nudge us in the right directions, without restricting our freedom of choice.

A must-read for anyone who wants to see both our minds and our society working better' Daniel Kahneman, author of Thinking, Fast and Slow ' I love this book. It is one of the few books I've read recently that fundamentally changes the way I think about the world' Steven D. Levitt, co-author of Freakonomics pp. Neuware - In this follow-up book to Strictly Inspirational, Camilla Sacre-Dallerup presents a clear, accessible motivational programme that focuses on reinvention.

Using her tried-and-tested tools, Camilla will show you that anyone can reinvent themselves, just as she has. Today, although she still dances, she has undergone her own career reinvention. Having trained as a life coach, Camilla is now a motivational speaker, hypnotherapist and meditation teacher. Reinvent Me is a complete 8-part programme created by Camilla to help anyone who is considering reinventing any part of their life. In each part you will find exercises and tools, examples from Camilla's own life, success stories from other people and a section on overcoming barriers. Each chapter ends with an affirmation for you to use as you complete each part of the programme.

Work through the programme at your own pace and see your transformation unfold. Printed in the late 19th century, the actual paper sheet as seen from what is now a very scarce periodical. An utterly fascinating old artifact regarding this topic. The visual effect is one of a long past time, and from this perspective the uniquely printed sheet of paper is most appealing. The type of now long gone machinery used and the look created by it is visually quaint by modern standards. Any minor defects may hopefully be clearly seen in the images.

Text on verso as issued-This is an original printed sheet from this scarce 19th century American periodical. Thus, this form is the only way this image can be acquired other than perhaps as a modern reprint- but who wants that when you can have the original at this totally reasonable price? Please examine the scan closely as it forms the central part of the description. There is a zoom feature so you can see close up. A delightful late 19th century print any collector, dealer, or institution would be happy to possess. Perfect for gift-giving, display, collecting, etc.

Sure to interest any active mind who enjoys seeing history visually represented. Sheet measures c. The media has primarily focused on how IS use mass media, the Internet, extreme violence and lately, the terrorist attacks in Paris. Terrorists who want to establish a caliphate are not new. Why exactly did IS establish a caliphate Also, why didn t al-Qaeda This will be the main questions I want to explore in this essay.

To answer these questions, I will utilize the fragile state concept. Both al-Qaeda and IS have presented the establishment of a caliphate as one of their ultimate goals. Both organizations belong to the same Islamic school of theology: jihadist-Salafism. Both organizations have had success and become dominant groups in the jihadi cause. Therefore, it is interesting to compare the two groups in light of the status of Iraqi state to see if the fragile state concept can explain anything. In this essay, I will compare al-Qaeda with IS. IS have fluctuated somewhat more regarding size and power but arguably increased in strength after US troops left Iraq in and the Syrian civil war erupted.

As the caliphate was declared in , this marks the time span that it is interesting to analyse IS. This essay consists of five parts: a brief history of IS, al-Qaeda and Iraq, the concept and theory of fragile states and definitions, method, an analysis of the variables and a conclusion. Neuware - The New York Times bestselling Freakonomics changed the way we see the world, exposing the hidden side of just about everything. Then came SuperFreakonomics, a documentary film, an award-winning podcast, and more.

Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner have written their most revolutionary book yet. With their trademark blend of captivating storytelling and unconventional analysis, they take us inside their thought process and teach us all to think a bit more productively, more creatively, more rationally- to think, that is, like a Freak.

Levitt and Dubner offer a blueprint for an entirely new way to solve problems, whether your interest lies in minor lifehacks or major global reforms. As always, no topic is off-limits. They range from business to philanthropy to sports to politics, all with the goal of retraining your brain.

Along the way, you'll learn the secrets of a Japanese hot-dog-eating champion, the reason an Australian doctor swallowed a batch of dangerous bacteria, and why Nigerian e-mail scammers make a point of saying they're from Nigeria. Some of the steps toward thinking like a Freak: First, put away your moral compass-because it's hard to see a problem clearly if you've already decided what to do about it.

Learn to say ' I don't know'-for until you can admit what you don't yet know, it's virtually impossible to learn what you need to. Think like a child-because you'll come up with better ideas and ask better questions. Take a master class in incentives-because for better or worse, incentives rule our world. Learn to persuade people who don't want to be persuaded-because being right is rarely enough to carry the day.

Learn to appreciate the upside of quitting-because you can't solve tomorrow's problem if you aren't willing to abandon today's dud. Levitt and Dubner plainly see the world like no one else. Now you can too. Never before have such iconoclastic thinkers been so revealing-and so much fun to read. Neuware - 'We need this message more than ever' Malala Yousafzai 'Powerfully illustrates issues that need our attention' Barack Obama 'Melinda Gates's book is a lesson in listening.

Throughout this journey, one thing has become increasingly clear to her: If you want to lift a society up, you need to stop keeping women down. In this moving and compelling book, Melinda shares lessons she's learned from the inspiring people she's met during her work and travels around the world.

As she writes in the introduction, 'That is why I had to write this book - to share the stories of people who have given focus and urgency to my life. I want all of us to see ways we can lift women up where we live. And, for the first time, she writes about her personal life and the road to equality in her own marriage.

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Throughout, she shows how there has never been more opportunity to change the world - and ourselves. Writing with emotion, candour, and grace, she introduces us to remarkable women and shows the power of connecting with one another. When we lift others up, they lift us up, too. A Master Plan for Mars NASA has gotten serious about exploring the red planet, with plans to send spacecraft there every two years throughout the next decade. By Leonard David Visions of Mars See the red planet as you, ve never viewed it before through the trained eyes of a planetary geologist.

By Michael C. Malin Microbes in a Martian Meteorite? Since then the rock has been the focus of intense study, and proof seems ever more elusive. Astronomical Computing By Stuart J. Goldman Comet Awards and Their Social Impact Droves of amateurs probe the depths of the sky every clear, moonless night in search of comets and a shot at fame and fortune. If it, s lightweight and compact it can.

Our observing guide tells you all you need to know. By Daniel M. Neuware - The perfect recipe for hygge: make a hot chocolate, draw the curtains, snuggle under a blanket and read your way to happiness! It's autumn in Yulethorpe and everyone is gloomy. It's cold, drizzly and the skies are permagrey. The last shop on the high street - an adorable little toy shop - has just shut its doors. Everything is going wrong for Yulethorpe this autumn. Until Clara Kristensen arrives.

Clara is on holiday but she can see the potential in the pretty town, so she rolls up her sleeves and sets to work. Things are looking up until Joe comes to Yulethorpe to find out exactly what is going on with his mother's shop. Surely no one would work this hard just for the fun of it Can a man who answers emails at 3 a. Rosie Blake's best novel yet - I had such a gorgeous time reading this story that I couldn't put it down. It was genuinely funny, warm-hearted, and full of unforgettable characters.

A pure heartwarming pleasure of a read. An absolutely phenomenal tale from the incredibly talented Rosie Blake.

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Be prepared to devour The Hygge Holiday in one sitting. Be prepared to love this book, because yes, it truly is THAT fabulous. Five stars for sure. Neuware - 'Anyone can break your heart--Jeff Zentner can also make you laugh out loud! But with the end of senior year quickly approaching, the girls face tough decisions about their futures. Josie has been dreading graduation, as she tries to decide whether to leave for a big university and chase her dream career in mainstream TV.

And Lawson, one of the show's guest performers, a talented MMA fighter with weaknesses for pancakes, fantasy novels, and Josie, is making her tough decision even harder. Scary movies are the last connection Delia has to her dad, who abandoned the family years ago. If Midnite Matinee becomes a hit, maybe he'll see it and want to be a part of her life again.

And maybe Josie will stay with the show instead of leaving her behind, too. As the tug-of-war between growing up and growing apart tests the bonds of their friendship, Josie and Delia start to realize that an uncertain future can be both monstrous. A resounding triumph. I don't know how you write that book.

Fortunately, Jeff Zentner does. Good advice based on sound neuroscientific principles' Sunday Times 'Impressively wide-ranging and thoughtful. There are fascinating facts and examples throughout' Wall Street Journal 'Deservedly a bestseller. Levitin demonstrates how easily we are bamboozled by statistical tricks, making his points with pithy stories' Independent 'Levitin is about as knowledgeable a guide to neuroscience as one might hope for' New York Times Book Review 'More insights per page than any other neuroscientist I know.

In the digital age we are overwhelmed by information. Unable to make sense of it all, our creativity plummets, decision making suffers and we grow absent-minded. The twenty-first century sees us drowning under emails, forever juggling six tasks at once and trying to make complex decisions ever more quickly.

This is information overload. In The Organized Mind, we learn how we got here and why smart organization improves our memories and attention - and makes us more imaginative and clear-sighted. Using a combination of academic research and examples from daily life, neuroscientist and bestselling author Daniel Levitin explains how to take back control of your life. You'll discover that: - Your brain has a daily processing limit - why waste it on cat photos - Pressing Send or clicking Like gives a dopamine hit - it's addictive - Daydreaming is your brain at its most productive - Multitasking is a bad way to do nearly everything This book will take you through every aspect of modern life, from healthcare to online dating to raising kids, showing that the secret to success is always organization.

Levitin's ideas are surprising, powerful and will change the way you see the world. By following the advice in The Organized Mind, you'll function better, go further and find more time to do the things you actually want to do. Tiffy Moore needs a cheap flat, and fast. Leon Twomey works nights and needs cash. Their friends think they're crazy, but it's the perfect solution: Leon occupies the one-bed flat while Tiffy's at work in the day, and she has the run of the place the rest of the time. But with obsessive ex-boyfriends, demanding clients at work, wrongly imprisoned brothers and, of course, the fact that they still haven't met yet, they're about to discover that if you want the perfect home you need to throw the rulebook out the window.

See what everyone is saying about The Flatshare, 's hottest debut! Original, funny and touching. Read it' Clare Mackintosh'One of the most talked about books of Guaranteed to leave you with a smile on your face' Good Housekeeping 'Heartwarming and brilliant' Closer pp. A wealthy woman strangled six hours after she's arranged her own funeral.

A very private detective uncovering secrets but hiding his own. A reluctant author drawn into a story he can't control. What do they have in common 'A real page-turner. I loved it! Hugely satisfying on every level. Michael Jordan's star qualities, as well as the global reach of satellite television, established a worldwide following for the Chicago Bulls.

An influx of eastern European players strengthened the international appeal of the National Hockey League. The National Basketball Association's open-door policy to talent attracted forty-five foreign players from twenty-nine countries, and as a result the NBA broadcast in countries and forty-two languages.

Major League Baseball, which began opening its season in foreign locations, inaugurated the season with players, 25 percent of them born outside the United States. As a result of Ichiro Suzuki 's success with the Seattle Mariners, the team's home games were televised live in Japan. Thousands of Japanese baseball fans even flew to Seattle to attend home games of a club owned by Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi. Along with rapid growth and increasing integration of markets, however, the age of globalization produced greater volatility.

The Mexican peso crisis of and the Asian economic crisis of — underscored the vulnerability of the market-driven globalization system and how quickly strife could spread in a world linked by high-velocity communication, financial, and transportation networks. The Asian economic crisis also showed globalization's impact in the political arena. It aroused concerns about the merits of Western-style, free-market globalization to an extent that street protests, stimulated by the economic downturn, forced Indonesia 's dictator of thirty-two years from power while politicians jockeyed for control in Thailand , the Philippines , South Korea , and Malaysia.

Over the preceding decade Wall Street , Washington, and international financial institutions had encouraged emerging economies to deregulate capital markets and open to foreign banks and financial institutions, but countries in Latin America and Asia paid for the deregulatory bonanza. By opening their markets, they made themselves susceptible to pressures from abroad and the international economy, and also lost independence over their fiscal policies. Abrupt changes in one country, region, or the world economy reverberated throughout these poorer nations, causing crises.

Yet the bankers and U. They stressed the benefits of liberalization under the process of globalization. Opposition to the pro-globalization agenda emerged among a disparate alliance of activists concerned about the environment, labor standards, and national sovereignty. In the first Bush administration had refused to accept the entire Rio de Janeiro Treaty that protected biodiversity of plant and animal species. An argument also erupted over the existence of global warming , which many scientists and environmental groups blamed on the emission of carbon-based gases into the atmosphere. A total of nations, including the United States, signed the Kyoto accord of that pledged to reduce such global emissions to 5.

America would cut its release of carbon-based gases by 7 percent. But President Bill Clinton faced staunch opposition from powerful business interests such as the Business Roundtable , the Chamber of Commerce, and the National Association of Manufacturers who thought the agreement flawed. The Senate voted 95 to 0 to oppose the protocol if developing countries like China and India were not also required to cut their emissions.

As a result, the administration never sent the agreement to Capitol Hill for ratification. Bush countered that additional studies were needed to better understand the problem.

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It was clear that, just as with the economy, globalization of environmental concerns might require international intervention. Environmental concerns indicated that there was not a consensus on globalization. Many people, especially in the labor and environmental movements and within academia, shunned this new globalization system, and argued that globalization undermined stability and prosperity and was leading to the disintegration of national economies and cultures. According to this view, workers had become pawns in transnational corporate agendas, the environment had been deregulated by the free-market rules of the WTO, and financial markets had been so decontrolled that the joint efforts of a handful of individuals could destabilize entire nations as in Indonesia in The anti-globalization protesters took to the streets to voice their objections.

The WTO ministerial meetings convened in Seattle in December to plan a new set of world trade negotiations called the Millennium Round, but huge demonstrations shut down the meetings. There were also optimists who saw the free market and meteoric advances in technology as a great boon or as an irreversible phenomenon that could not be halted. They announced that the world had entered a period of unity unlike the divisive forty-five-year Cold War that rewarded flexibility, high technology, and individualism. Public opinion polls showed Americans divided on such issues as globalization and free trade.

As the twenty-first century opened, the globalization revolution continued to roll forward. While the global spread of information, the integration of markets, and the erasure of borders had the potential to promote global peace, prosperity, and the convergence of basic values, there was a dark dimension often ignored by corporate boosters. For one, globalization benefited organized criminals as well as corporations.

Narcotics accounted for about half, but a trade in people was also lucrative. In the health area, globalization presented a number of challenges. Public health officials worried that increased human mobility enhanced opportunities for microbes. The risks ranged from trade in illegal products and contaminated foodstuffs, divergent safety standards, indiscriminate spread of medical technologies and experimentation, and the sale of prescription drugs without approval of national authorities.

With some two million people crossing borders daily, industrialized nations faced threats from emerging infectious diseases, exposure to dangerous substances, and violence such as chemical and bioterrorist attack. Furthermore, the spread of information on the Internet empowered individual terrorists like the Unabomber to exact their own revenge on global society. Globalization was a phenomenon of the twentieth century, although it was often hidden from view.

Its effects on diplomacy were enormous. In the age of instantaneous communication, rapid transport, and volatile markets, it was apparent that complexities of international relationships had moved far beyond the expertise of professional diplomats and foreign ministries. Diplomats and governments no longer served as gatekeepers. In the networked world, individuals, nongovernmental organizations, and officials communicated rapidly and regularly.

But while technological innovation and information had networked millions of individuals into a system without central control, it is worth emphasizing that governments helped fund the networking revolution. The U. Moreover, Washington's commitment to market opening, deregulation, and liberalization of trade and finance provided the policy impetus that led to a variety of international agreements and arrangements promoting an open world order.

Thus have diplomacy and techno-economic globalization been linked since the post — Civil War era. Aaronson, Susan Ariel. Ann Arbor , Mich. Adler, William M. New York, By one of the growing number of critics from the labor side. Barber, Benjamin R. Jihad vs. A classic account of the cultural debate over globalization. Bauman, Zygmunt. Globalization: The Human Consequences. Covers the dark side of globalization. Boli, John, and George M.

Stanford, Calif. Explains one of the institutional elements of globalization. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, D. Discusses how globalization has changed diplomacy. Chandler, Alfred D. Cortada, eds. Dragsback Schmidt, Johannes, and Jacques Hersh, eds. Globalization and Social Change. London, New York, Eckes, Alfred E.

Everard, Jerry. London and New York, Fraser, Jane, and Jeremy Oppenheim. Accessible and informative account of the velocity and scope of late-twentieth-century globalization compared to other eras. Friedman, Thomas. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. A spritely, optimistic analysis. Giddens, Anthony. Gray, John. A leading British conservative intellectual criticizes globalization. Greider, William. Anecdotal but in-depth criticism of the business globalization process by a leading progressive. Held, David, et al. Global Transformations: Politics, Economics, and Culture.

Cambridge, Holton, Robert J. Globalization and the Nation-State. London, For the role of the state and politics. Jameson, Fredrick, and Masao Miyashi, eds. The Cultures of Globalization. Durham, N. Excellent starting point for understanding the cultural aspects. LaFeber, Walter. Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism. A leading diplomatic history revisionist analyzes globalization through the career of a famous sports star. Lechner, Frank J.

The Globalization Reader. Malden, Mass. Extensive coverage of all aspects of the phenomenon. Levitt, Theodore. The article in which the term "globalization" was coined. Luttwak, Edward. Micklethwait, John, and Adrian Wooldridge. Mittelman, James H. The Globalization Syndrome: Transformation and Resistance. Princeton, N. Oloka-Onyango, J. A useful United Nations — based summary, including globalization's noneconomic impact.

O'Rourke, Kevin H. Cambridge, Mass. One of a handful of historical treatments. Prakash, Aseem, and Jeffrey A. Hart, ed. Responding to Globalization. Rodrik, Dani. Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Articulate and thought-provoking early warning about the negative effects of globalization. Rupert, Mark. Sassen, Saskia. Soros, George.

Warnings of impending collapse from a giant of global finance capital. Tomlinson, John. Globalization and Culture. Chicago, Highly theoretical treatment of the complex interaction of culture in international society. Wallach, Lori, and Michell Sforza. Criticism of the globalization phenomenon from Wallach, one of the protest organizers. Went, Robert. Globalization: Neoliberal Challenge, Radical Responses.

Concise but balanced assessment. Zachary, G. Zeiler, Thomas W. Eckes, Jr. First history that addresses the synergistic relationship of globalization and U. Defying the label Americanization, the Beatles epitomized globalization. They emerged in the new era of rapid travel and electronic communications, influenced by black rock 'n' roll brought to Liverpool by American sailors and spurred by their initial fan base from nightclubs in Hamburg, West Germany. Beatlemania seized England in , grew in popularity in Australia, and emerged on the Continent.

The hit spread to the non-English-speaking world. The Fab Four then debuted in the United States on the Ed Sullivan Show, playing to a television audience of 73 million people, about 60 percent of total U. Mass global hysteria set in. In the queen honored them for their contribution to the British foreign trade balance.

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Two years later, they took part in the first live global satellite broadcast, representing Britain on "Our World," a special originating in eighteen countries on five continents. Wit, cleverness, and aggressive marketing catapulted the Beatles to fame, but they also tapped into the growing cohesion of youth worldwide that attested to the cultural and economic pressures of globalization.

Timing the release of their album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, for maximum exposure, they caused a mini-explosion within the Beatles craze itself, as youth across the planet apparently bought the record and played it in unison. It was a moment of unified pop culture. The Beatles flowed across borders, commercially and culturally, exploiting communications technology and open markets — elements of the globalization process.

Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. July 10, Retrieved July 10, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Globalization refers to the process of integration across societies and economies. The phenomenon encompasses the flow of products, services, labor, finance, information, and ideas moving across national borders.

The frequency and intensity of the flows relate to the upward or downward direction of globalization as a trend. There is a popular notion that there has been an increase of globalization since the early s. However, a comparison of the period between and to the post- World War II era indicates a greater degree of globalization in the earlier part of the century than the latter half. This is true in regards to international trade growth and capital flows, as well as migration of people to America.

If a perspective starts after , globalization is a growing trend with a predominance of global economic. Between and , total output of export and import of goods as a proportion of GDP rose from This amount continues to grow throughout the s. Hence, the general direction of globalization is growth, but it is often unevenly distributed between wealthier and poorer countries. A primary economic rationale for globalization is reducing barriers to trade for the enrichment of all societies.

The greater good would be served by leveraging comparative advantages for production and trade that are impeded by regulatory barriers between sovereignty entities. In other words, the betterment of societies through free trade for everyone is possible as long as each one has the freedom to produce with a comparative advantage and engage in exchanges with others. This economic rationale for global integration depends on supporting factors to facilitate the process.

The factors include advances in transportation, communication, and technology to provide the necessary conduits for global economic integration. While these factors are necessary, they are not sufficient. Collaboration with political will through international relations is required to leverage the potential of the supporting factors. Globalization from to came to an end with World War I , as various countries pursued isolationism and protectionism agendas through various treaties — the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Treaty of Versailles , the Treaty of St.

Germain , and the Treaty of Trianon These events contributed to the implosion of globalization for more than forty years. Toward the end of World War II , forty-four countries met in an effort to re-establish international trade. The milestone is referred to as Bretton Woods, named after the New Hampshire country inn where the meeting was held. In , the International Trade Organization ITO was established as an agency of the United Nations , with fifty member countries and the Havana Charter to facilitate international trade, but it failed. GATT involved a number of different multilateral rounds of trade negotiations to reduce trade barriers and facilitate international trade.

Subsequent trade rounds involved more members and additional issues, but the basic foundation of GATT remained the same. In the second round, the Kennedy Round of the mids, the focus continued with tariff reductions. In the third round, the Tokyo Round to , countries participated to reform the trading system, resulting in tariffs on manufactured products which were reduced to 4.

Important issues revolved around anti-dumping measures, and subsidies and countervailing measures. The reduction of trade barriers enabled about an average of 8 percent growth of world trade per year in the s and s. In the fourth round, the Uruguay Round to , countries participated to develop a more comprehensive system. An increasing importance was placed on globalization and on new, uncharted territories such as intellectual property. Additionally, other areas were discussed for coverage under new regulations, including agricultural and other old world industries including textiles.

The WTO encompasses trade in goods, services, and intellectual property related to trade with a more efficient dispute settlement system. The mission of this round was to give a hand up to impoverished peoples and nations of the world by lowering more trade barriers and strengthening local workers, farmers, and other members of agricultural communities by creating new rules for assisting underdeveloped nations. The overall goal is to create a truly global economy by stimulating all economies everywhere, rather than favoring those that are already thriving in well-developed nations.

However, the Doha round has been plagued by deadlock and contention; less-developed nations have accused wealthier nations of protectionist policies, especially regarding national agricultural subsidies and tariffs. Talks to reach an agreement collapsed in , , , , and The increase of globalization surfaced many complex and controversial issues as economies and societies became more interdependent with greater frequency of interactions between one another.

A number of important trends make up globalization, including: 1 location of integration activities; 2 impact upon poorer societies; 3 flow of capital; 4 migration of laborers and labor; 5 diffusion of technology; 6 sustainability of the natural environment; 7 reconfiguration of cultural dynamics; and 8 development of organizational strategies for global competition. Many authors specialize in exploring each issue with much greater depth.

The purpose of reviewing the different trends in this essay is to provide some highlights concerning the interrelated complexities underlying globalization. Location of integration activities. The extent of globalization unfolds in an uneven fashion to the degree that the question is raised whether international trade is more focused on regional rather than global integration. According to global economists' forecasts, most of these agreements will eventually work in unison as parts of a larger, more global agreement.

Georgios Chortareas's and Theodore Pelagidis's research findings on openness and convergence in international trade indicate that intraregional trade increased more than global trade in most situations. Within NAFTA, intraregional exports rose from 34 percent in the s to more than 56 percent in ; exports between Asian country members amounted to 48 percent in ; and exports within the EU were sustained at about 62 percent.

By , exports from the United States to Mexico had quadrupled, and exports from the United States to Canada doubled.

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The trend of rapid exports growth continued into The impact is exacerbated because 70 percent of the world's poorest population lives in rural communities and depends heavily on agriculture as a staple of survival and economy. Hence, one of the concerns with uneven distribution of globalization is its impact on poorer economies by perpetuating systems of inequality. Opponents of free-trade agreements suggest that in many cases, especially the case of DR-CAFTA, trade agreements can further hinder the progress of the.

Impact on poorer societies. A challenge to globalization is that inequality arises from imbalances in trade liberalization, where the rich gain disproportionately more than the poor. Ajit K. Ghose examined the impact of international trade on income inequality and found that inter-country inequality increased from to , in a sample of 96 national economies, but international inequality measured by per capita GDP declined.

The ratio of average income for the wealthiest 20 percent compared to the poorest 20 percent rose from 30 to 74 from the early s to the late s. According to a GDP listing of nations released by the CIA World Factbook from , the per capita difference between the top 10 percent of countries and the remaining 90 percent shows an overall decline in international inequality, but a disparity remains nonetheless. In one billion people owned 80 percent of the world's GDP, while another billion survived on one dollar. However, during the same period, when factoring average income that is weighted by population, income inequality dropped by 10 percent.

Global income distribution became more equal with other measures such as purchasing power parity or the number of people living in poverty. The World Development Indicators for showed a drop in the absolute number of people living on one dollar per day from 1. Thus, the impact of globalization on inequality is a complex issue depending on the particular measures. More specific examination needs to account for other contributing factors, such as how regionalism increases concentration of trade between countries that are wealthier and leaving poorer countries at or below the margin.

Flow of capital. The flow of capital relates to both regionalism and inequality issues. Two forms of capital flow are foreign direct investments FDI made by business firms and investment portfolios, diversified with foreign assets or borrowers seeking foreign funding. Some Caribbean countries receive more than 10 percent of their GDP from remittances.

While developing countries are the primary recipients of remittances, transaction costs can amount to 10 to 15 percent per transaction. Reducing such obstacles would benefit poorer countries with heavy dependencies on remittances. The flow of money across national borders relates to the migration of both labor and work. Migration of labor and work. An important dimension of globalization is the migration of people. While the proportion of migration was greater during the earlier mercantilism period, sovereign border controls to a large extent create a filtration process for migration.

About million people lived in a different country than their birth country in They can be separated into three categories: million international migrants, 16 million refugees, and , asylum seekers. An important global trend in the future is the movement of labor from developing to developed countries because of the latter's need for labor with an aging population. Family-sponsored migration makes up 45 to 75 percent of international migrants who mainly originate from developing countries to countries in Europe and North America.

The number applying for entry into developed countries often far exceeds the number permitted. Due to extensive legal processes, some migrants enter illegally, while others become illegal with expiration of legal status. With the aging of baby boomers in many developed countries, future globalization of migrant labor flow is receiving more attention, especially in education, health care, retirement funding, and housing.

Although migrant labor often entails the movement of people in search of work, a related globalization trend is the migration of work to different geographical locations. While multinational corporations MNCs often seek low-cost labor, innovation advances in computer technology, satellite communication infrastructures, Internet developments, and efficient transportation networks enable companies to distribute work in ways not possible before. Compression of time and space with Internet technology allows for the distribution of work to take place around the world with global virtual teams.

The phenomena of outsourcing and offshoring expand on the earlier sourcing of low-cost manufacturing. During the s. Expansion of MNCs in the s encompassed highly skilled workers, service work, and global virtual teams. Firms started to outsource information technology IT functions as early as the s, but a major wave of outsourcing started in with the shortage of skilled IT workers in developed countries. At the same time, the trend of shifting work around the globe to leverage the different time zones began with the financial industry's ability to shift trading between the various stock exchanges in New York , Tokyo, Hong Kong , and London.

Technological innovations in computers and the Internet enabled other industries, such as software engineering, data transcription, and customer service centers to also shift work around the globe. Higher education and high-skill health care jobs are also embarking on global outsourcing. The impact of global outsourcing is not just a relocation of jobs, but also a dampening of employee compensation levels in more developed economies.

The migration of labor and work create complex globalization dynamics in management of people and finances for most firms. Diffusion of technology. Innovations in telecommunication, information technology, and computing advances all support progression of globalization. In the World Wide Web had 20 million users, exploded to million by late , and had over 1.

However, the rapid growth and adoption of information technology is not evenly diffused around the world. The gap between high versus low adoption rates is often referred to as the digital divide. In , over 30 percent of Americans and Europeans had Internet access, while the number for Africa was 1. The digital divide reflects other disparities of globalization. Globalization of computer technology also entails a growing trend of computer crimes on an international basis, which requires cross-border collaboration to address.

Additional globalization trends related to computer technology include developments in artificial intelligence , high-speed connections such as wireless applications, the use of handheld and mobile devices to access the Internet and e-mail, and integration with biotechnology. Sustainability of the natural environment. The impacts of globalization on environment sustainability are hotly contested, with major environmental protests held at international economic meetings or prominent multilateral trade forums.

In the United Nations publication Brundtland Report named for Gro Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway , galvanized international attention on sustainable development was a major concentration. The assumption was that the degradation of the environment in developing countries was due primarily to poverty. Some advocates of globalization consider free trade to be a solution to alleviate poverty and subsequently, reduce pollution. However, the arguments depend upon corporate social responsibility, managerial knowledge of environmental sustainability, and the level of ignorance in the developing community.

Critics find that often large MNCs have greater financial resources than some developing countries, which can be used to compromise and derail regulatory regimes from protecting the environment. One of the landmarks on environmental globalization is the Kyoto Accord, an international treaty to reduce greenhouse gas emissions based on exchanging limited pollution credits between countries. After lengthy, multilateral, and complex negotiations, the Kyoto Accord was concluded in December , for ratification by national governments.

On February 16, , the date for the Kyoto Protocol to take effect, nations ratified the agreement. Even though the United States is the world's largest polluter in volume and per capita output of greenhouse gases, the Bush administration refused to ratify the Kyoto Accord. Reconfiguration of cultural dynamics. Culture is another area of complex controversies with globalization.

Competing perspectives about how globalization affects cultures revolve around the debates of cultural homogenization versus cultural diversification. The optimistic view of cultural globalization is that cultural diversity focuses on freer cultural exchanges with broader choices and enrichment of learning from different traditions. People have greater. Cultural diversity and quality are diminished with mass produced goods being directed toward a common denominator.

The process involves a sense of far-reaching, anonymous cultural imperialism. Debates from each perspective are intense with substantial evidence that also reveals complex ties to social and political dynamics within and between national borders. Cultural globalization continues into the foreseeable future with many more controversial dynamics related to three important issues: 1 the impact of extractive industries on the socio-economic, cultural exclusion and dislocation of indigenous peoples and their traditional knowledge; 2 international trading of cultural goods and knowledge; and 3 inflow of immigration impacts on national culture, which creates a tension between a sense of threat to the national culture and migrant demands for respect to their traditions in a multicultural society.

Development of organizational strategies for global competition. The multiple dynamics of globalization — regionalism, inequality, financial flow, migration of labor and work, technological innovations, environmental sustainability, and cultural dynamics — form a turbulent and complex environment for managing business operations. While seven trends were highlighted to provide a brief sketch of interrelated complexities and controversies globalization, it also surfaced other significant issues. Global concerns revolve around terrorism, rapid transmission of pandemic diseases and viruses, the rise of China 's and India's economies, an aging population in wealthier northern countries versus younger growing populations in the southern hemisphere, and advances in bio-technology.

These issues are intricately embedded in the globalization processes. Globalization entails both opportunities and threats for creating and sustaining competitive strategies. Emerging economies offer resources in terms of labor, as well as expanding market opportunities. However, geopolitical relationships and backlashes from perceptions of cultural imperialism, such as the tensions between the United States and the European Union during the Iraq war create challenges for business operations.

Global managers have a wide range of options to deal with globalization. Organizational strategies for international operations involve two related demands — the need for local orientation and the need for integration as shown in Figure 2.

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Firms with low need for local orientation, but high need for integration require a global strategy that centralizes core operations with minor modifications for local adaptation. However, firms with a need for high local orientation, but low need for integration, require a multinational strategy that decentralizes significant operations to respond to local market conditions. Firms integrating a high need for both local orientation and organizational integration should strive for a transnational strategy.

In addition to selecting a strategy for global competition, managers also need to make decisions regarding the internationalization process. Two processes are important. First, the development of innovations in a home market as products move along the product life cycle stages. Firms can take products entering into the plateau of a mature stage to new international markets.

Often the flow moves from developed to developing countries. Second, stages of internationalization with foreign entry modes that involve increasing resource commitment and risks. The stage approach to internationalization takes time because it involves licensing and exportation, which can be mired with national and international bureaucracy.

Kenichi Ohmae argued that the speed and complexities of globalization require firms to rethink their internationalization processes because incremental stage models are often too slow. Given the rate and quantity of knowledge within the global business community, firms are likely to face competition in their home markets, with comparable innovations before they are able to establish a foothold in the international marketplace. The incremental stage models are too slow for competing in an increasingly integrated global economy.

Ohmae suggested that firms form global strategic alliances with partners established in three major markets — North America , Europe, and Asia, particularly Japan. Development of global competitive intelligence and innovation among partners provides for rapid market development and the establishment of strategic positions in multiple locations. Basically, globalization into the twenty-first century creates a fundamentally different competitive environment that shifted from incremental internationalization processes to almost simultaneous deployment of innovations.

This internationalization process also shifts the work of global managers from managing a field of expatriates to collaborating with strategic partners across national borders, managing global offshore outsourcing vendors in multiple geographical locations and working remotely with telecommuting staff in regions of import and export. Globalization is the culmination of complex and controversial trends that include a degree of geographical integration, inequalities, financial flows, labor and laborers, technological innovations, environmental sustainability, cultural dynamics, and organizational strategies for global competition.

Given a historical perspective, globalization has fluctuated over time and many indicators support a trend of increasing globalization since the s. The United States is no longer the dominant super-power in the global economy; the rise of both China and India are the most important developments in globalization of the economy since the onset of the twenty-first century. Asia is proving to be a powerful competitor and excellent partner in commerce as economic trends move toward a universal system. The United States and China should not be considered foes — their mutual respect is a major consideration for international business in the future.

Global managers have options for strategies and structures, as well as different internationalization processes. In summary, globalization creates a competitive arena as well as a platform for unlikely partnerships where MNCs evolve into global networks, the business model of the modern world. Agenor, Pierre-Richard. Central Intelligence Agency. Chortareas, Georgios E. Clott, Christopher B. Corbett, M. Cowan, Tyler. Doyle, Michael W.

Ghose, Ajit K. Johanson, J. Keohane, Robert O. Nye, Jr. Minyard, Alan D. Neal, Christopher. Ohmae, Kenichi. The Borderless World. New York : Harper Business, O'Neil, Tim. Palvia, Shallendra. Pastor, Robert A. Toronto: Broadview Press, forthcoming, Simon, David. United Nations Development Program.

New York: Oxford University Press, Wolf, Martin. Why Globalization Works. World Bank. World Commission on Environment and Development. Brundtland Report: Our Common Future. Viewed narrowly, globalization is a governmental policy favoring free trade , open borders, the free movement of capital and goods but not always of people , elimination of tariffs and price controls including artificial control of currency values , and the privatization of publicly-owned or controlled enterprises. Globalization is also a word used to describe all manner of phenomena associated with such a policy — both positive and negative.

In the U. Globalization is a polarizing issue generally favored by the right in the name of free markets and opposed by the left as a policy that favors "Big Capital" and hence a small corporate elite. The International Monetary Fund, an organization of countries, suggests in its definition that globalization is something of a natural process. Globalization, according to the IMF, is "a historical process, the result of human innovation and technological progress.

It refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows. The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people labor and knowledge technology across international borders. There are also broader cultural, political and environmental dimensions of globalization ….

Trade, of course, is as old as humanity. Anthropologists have traced enormous trade routes that Cro-Magnon man used all across Europe before the dawn of history. Trade over land and by ship became common, the principal trade goods being agricultural products like olives and grains. In pre-industrial times high dependence either on exports or imports tended to lead to war as countries tried either to secure their supplies or their markets. Rome became seriously dependent on grain imports from Egypt and eventually conquered its supplier.

The British Empire evolved as a series of steps attempting to protect its far flung trading centers. In modern times oil and gas are the "must have" commodities and are producing wars and tensions. The relevant phrase in the IMF's definition therefore is "increasing integration.

Underlying trade is the uneven distribution of the world's resources. Some people have grain, others have timber. Some can raise animals on plains others can mine metal in mountains. We encounter a formulation of this argument in Adam Smith 's The Wealth of Nations 18th century : "If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it of them with some part of the produce of our own industry, employed in a way in which we have some advantage.

In any event, the value underlying free trade is that both sides benefit because of differential advantages. Trade is the expression of economic power, but a more basic power underlies it: political power expressed as force. Trade-based policies in the past have been balanced by policies of autarky, a word Merriam-Webster defines to mean "national economic self-sufficiency; a policy of establishing independence of imports from other countries.

Thus the U. The relative power of a country, the relative importance of a commodity, and the relative influence of vital constituencies within that country combine to determine how much a country will rely on trade, how much on force, and in which categories particularly. A fundamental reason for opposition to globalization arises from its chief feature, integration and therefore mutual dependence.

In democratically organized countries political blocks can only hope to influence their own government — not that of scores of others. But unreachable foreign governments will influence the local economy. And narrow constituencies that benefit disproportionately from free trade may be able to control the government. The free trade philosophy, based on the vitality of competition, is also opposed by a socialist philosophy, based on the virtue of cooperation. Globalization is taking place under international treaties to which a majorities of countries are signatories.

Traditionally these treaties have been negotiated in so-called "rounds" and have resulted in "agreements. The first GATT was negotiated and signed in WTO is now the successor to all of these agreements. The organization describes itself as "the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments.

The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. The chief aims of the round, strongly backed by the U. The future of this round, and thus indirectly of the WTO, was murky at the time of writing because ratification of the new agreements was widely opposed and not certain to be ratified even by the U. Within the U.

The legal basis of this governmental element was the Trade Expansion Act of , modified by subsequent trade acts, most recently by the Trade and Development Act of Official U. In addition, the U. Just to keep things straight, special trade agreements are not the same as the often-mentioned "most-favored-nation" designations. The Library of Congress Research Service provides the following definition for the phrase: "Under the provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT , when one country accords another most-favored-nation status, it agrees to extend to that country the same trade concessions, such as lower tariffs or reduced nontariff barriers, that it grants to any other recipient having most-favored-nation status.

But some countries may be treated more favorably still. In that case they will not bear the "most favored" label. NAFTA members are an example. The phrasing is unfortunate because one is reminded of George Orvell's Animal Farm. Many nations may be "most favored," but some are more favored than others. The costs and benefits of globalization depend on who you are, where you are, and even on what you are doing at any one point in time. Are you shopping? Looking for work? Do you work for a multinational? For a small business?

From the U. This has helped consumers but has brought hardship on many small-business retailers unable to purchase goods in high quantity in foreign markets at rock-bottom prices. Globalization has not only made it possible to import low-priced goods but also to export well-paid jobs to low-wage regions of the world, thus causing job-losses domestically. Lost jobs may be replaced, but the general consequences of intense competition with lower-paid labor elsewhere is to depress income domestically.

The benefits of lower prices have sent U. Robert Samuelson reported in Newsweek on this phenomenon, citing Sara Johnson of Global Insight: "From to ," Samuelson wrote, "the United States generated almost 45 percent of global growth in consumer spending … That dwarfs the U. This, in effect, represents a net loss of U. In the case of the U. The near term beneficiaries of globalization are consumers. And they need help because their incomes are stagnant or declining.

The clearest beneficiaries are the stockholders of big multinational corporations that reap the rewards of greatly increased flexibilities in sourcing labor and raw materials while still retaining the large U. The somewhat conflicting outcomes of globalization are typically justified by appeals to technological progress: The U. Thus goes the argument. But the argument is, to some extent, a "bird-in-the-bush" rather than a "bird-in-the-hand" argument.

For this reason energetic public opposition to globalization has emerged.